Pakistani women issues, Hepatitis C Virus

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Mother-to-infant Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is acquired through transfusion of infected blood or blood products or through routes not related to transfusion, classified as community acquired disease. The rate of mother to infant HCV transmission is critical to predicting the burden of HCV infection in future generations (particularly after the implementation of blood product screening in 1991). The factors that determine whether or not an infant actually becomes infected need to be identified.

 



Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widespread, with an estimated 3 percent of the world population infected. Acute infection is usually mild but chronic disease develops in as many of 70 percent of patients, of whom at least 20 percent will eventually develop cirrhosis. Infection with HCV may have effects on various organs other than the liver and has been associated with a variety of extrahepatic (outside the liver) manifestations.Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus cause devastating long term complications in a significant minority of patients affected with these diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects an estimated 170 million persons worldwide and thus represents a viral pandemic, one that is five times as widespread as infection with HIV. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common cause of chronic liver diseases but the
degree to which these diseases contribute to liver related mortality (death) is not well
established.


Risk Factors:
Injection drug use (IDU) is a known
risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV)
infection, but the strength of other
parenteral and sexual risk factors is unclear.

Fatigue and Psychologic Disturbances:
It is a common clinical impression
that fatigue is a frequent, and often
debilitating, symptom in patients with
chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)
infection. However, despite its
obvious clinical importance,
several aspects of fatigue,
including its relationship with
the underlying liver disease
and the presence of psychological
disturbances, have not been
well examined.
Interspousal transmission:
Interspousal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been documented;
however, the annual risk of interspousal transmission remains unclear. The annual risk of interspousal transmission of HCV infection was 0.23 percent per year.

Virus Infection After Liver Transplantation
Liver transplantation (LT) used as treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is almost universally associated with a recurrence of infection. More than 60 percent of patients show clinical and histological signs of hepatitis within 1 year of transplantation, and in several studies a rapid development of fibrosis and cirrhosis was reported.

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Maternal-Infant Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is comparatively
uncommon. The actual time and mode of transmission are not known. Elective Cesarean section is not recommended for women with chronic HCV infection alone. The role of treatment to prevent transmission is limited by the fetal toxicity of currently available medications for hepatitis C. Breast feeding poses no important risk of HCV transmission if nipples are not traumatized and maternal hepatitis C is quiescent. Pregnancy women at high risk for HCV infection should be screened for anti-HCV and HCV RNA testing should be performed if anti-HCV is positive. Infants of women with hepatitis C should be tested for HCV RNA on two occasions, between the ages of 2 and 6 months, and again at 18 to 24 months, along with serum anti-HCV. The natural history of mother-to-infant hepatitis C remains uncertain, especially the course in the first year of life when some infants appear to have spontaneous resolution.

Hepatitis Virus in Blood and Dialysate in Hemodialysis

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) positivity among hemodialysis patients remains high compared with that of the healthy population, and thus the issue of safety and environmental protection must be addressed.
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